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This example demonstrates how to perform representational similarity analysis (RSA) on EEG data, using a searchlight approach.
In the searchlight approach, representational similarity is computed between the model and searchlight “patches”. A patch is defined by a seed point (e.g. sensor Pz) and everything within the given radius (e.g. all sensors within 4 cm. of Pz). Patches are created for all possible seed points (e.g. all sensors), so you can think of it as a “searchlight” that moves from seed point to seed point and everything that is in the spotlight is used in the computation.
The radius of a searchlight can be defined in space, in time, or both. In this example, our searchlight will have a spatial radius of 4.5 cm. and a temporal radius of 50 ms.
The dataset will be the kiloword dataset : approximately 1,000 words were presented to 75 participants in a go/no-go lexical decision task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded.
# sphinx_gallery_thumbnail_number=2 # Import required packages import mne import mne_rsa
MNE-Python contains a build-in data loader for the kiloword dataset. We use it here to read it as 960 epochs. Each epoch represents the brain response to a single word, averaged across all the participants. For this example, we speed up the computation, at a cost of temporal precision, by downsampling the data from the original 250 Hz. to 100 Hz.
data_path = mne.datasets.kiloword.data_path(verbose=True) epochs = mne.read_epochs(data_path / 'kword_metadata-epo.fif') epochs = epochs.resample(100)
Reading C:\Users\wmvan\mne_data\MNE-kiloword-data\kword_metadata-epo.fif ... Isotrak not found Found the data of interest: t = -100.00 ... 920.00 ms 0 CTF compensation matrices available Adding metadata with 8 columns 960 matching events found No baseline correction applied 0 projection items activated
The kiloword datas was erroneously stored with sensor locations given in centimeters instead of meters. We will fix it now. For your own data, the sensor locations are likely properly stored in meters, so you can skip this step.
for ch in epochs.info['chs']: ch['loc'] /= 100
epochs object contains a
.metadata field that contains
information about the 960 words that were used in the experiment. Let’s have
a look at the metadata for the 10 random words:
Let’s pick something obvious for this example and build a dissimilarity matrix (DSM) based on the number of letters in each word.
dsm_vis = mne_rsa.compute_dsm(epochs.metadata[['NumberOfLetters']], metric='euclidean') mne_rsa.plot_dsms(dsm_vis)
<Figure size 200x200 with 2 Axes>
The above DSM will serve as our “model” DSM. In this example RSA analysis, we are going to compare the model DSM against DSMs created from the EEG data. The EEG DSMs will be created using a “searchlight” pattern. We are using squared Euclidean distance for our DSM metric, since we only have a few data points in each searchlight patch. Feel free to play around with other metrics.
rsa_result = mne_rsa.rsa_epochs( epochs, # The EEG data dsm_vis, # The model DSM epochs_dsm_metric='sqeuclidean', # Metric to compute the EEG DSMs rsa_metric='kendall-tau-a', # Metric to compare model and EEG DSMs spatial_radius=0.45, # Spatial radius of the searchlight patch in meters. temporal_radius=0.05, # Temporal radius of the searchlight path in seconds. tmin=0.15, tmax=0.25, # To save time, only analyze this time interval n_jobs=1, # Only use one CPU core. Increase this for more speed. n_folds=None, # Don't use any cross-validation verbose=False) # Set to True to display a progress bar
Performing RSA between Epochs and 1 model DSM(s) Spatial radius: 0.45 meters Using 29 sensors Temporal radius: 5 samples Time inverval: 0.15-0.25 seconds Automatic dermination of folds: 1 (no cross-validation) Creating spatio-temporal searchlight patches
The result is packed inside an MNE-Python
mne.Evoked object. This
object defines many plotting functions, for example
mne.Evoked.plot_topomap() to look at the spatial distribution of the
RSA values. By default, the signal is assumed to represent micro-Volts, so we
need to explicitly inform the plotting function we are plotting RSA values
and tweak the range of the colormap.
rsa_result.plot_topomap(rsa_result.times, units=dict(eeg='kendall-tau-a'), scalings=dict(eeg=1), cbar_fmt='%.4f', vmin=0, nrows=2, sphere=1)
<MNEFigure size 1050x415 with 12 Axes>
Unsurprisingly, we get the highest correspondance between number of letters and EEG signal in areas in the visual word form area.
Total running time of the script: ( 0 minutes 32.290 seconds)